Category Archives: linux

Initial setup failed. Cannot continue. Error: Couldn’t run mojosetup

If you are trying to install a game downloaded from but you get something like

$ ./
Verifying archive integrity… All good.
Uncompressing Shadow Tactics: Blades of the Shogun ( 100%
Collecting info for this system…
Operating system: linux
CPU Arch: x86_64
trying mojosetup in bin/linux/x86_64

Initial setup failed. Cannot continue.

Error: Couldn’t run mojosetup

then your file is corrupted or incomplete. You will have to re-download it. Ignore the “bin/linux/x86_64” path, that references something inside the installer, not something on your system.

Petition GOG to add checksums to their download pages or better yet, have reasonable download options that support resuming and HTTPS and what not…

One SRTMGL1 GeoTIFF to rule them all

NOTE: In up to date GDAL things might be easier AND I messed up with --config and -co below. Poke me to update it please.

So about half a year ago Lukas Martinelli asked about a global SRTM GeoTIFF. The SRTM elevation data is usually shared in many small tiles which can be ideal for some cases but annoying for others. I like downloading and processing big files so I took that as a challenge. It’s probably some mental thing. I never finished this blog post back then. It’s probably another mental thing. 8) Read on if you are interested in some GNU coreutils hackery as well as GDAL magick.

Here is how I did it. Endless thanks as usual to Even Rouault who fixed GDAL bugs and gave great hints. I learned more about GeoTIFFs and GDAL than I should have needed to know.

Downloading the source files

The source files are available at (warning, visiting this URL will make your browser cry and potentially render your system unresponsive). To download them you must create an NASA Earthdata Login at :\


                         U.S. GOVERNMENT COMPUTER

This US Government computer is for authorized users only.  By accessing this
system you are consenting to complete monitoring with no expectation of privacy.
Unauthorized access or use may subject you to disciplinary action and criminal

OMGOMGOMG. I am sure they would have used <blink> if accessibility guidelines allowed it. As I am not sure what their Terms of Service are, I will not give you a copy’n’paste ready line to download them all. wget or aria2 work well. You should get 14297 files with a total size of 98G.

Inspecting the ZIP files and preparing for GDAL’s vsizip

Each of those ZIP files has just a single file “.hgt” inside. GDAL specifically has support for the “SRTM HGT Format“, so we know it can read those files. We just need to extract them. (If you clicked that link you see that with GDAL 2.2 it will support directly loading the data from the ZIPs, that’s just Even being awesome.)

We don’t want to uncompress all those files just because we want to build a GeoTIFF from them later, do we? Luckily GDAL has a vsizip thingie which allows it to read files inside zip archives. Wicked! For this we need the “deep” paths to the files though, for example

The files inside the archives are always simply the same filename minus the “.SRTMGL1” and the .zip extension. Perfect, now we know all the files from inside the ZIPs! Right? Nope. Unfortunately some (17) of the archives do include the “.SRTMGL1” bit in their files, for example N38E051.SRTMGL1.hgt… >:(

That’s why we need to look into each zip file and determine the filename inside. (Alternatively *you* could extract them all after all, you with your fancy, huge SSD.)

We can simply use `unzip` with the `-t` switch to make it show what’s inside (and as a “free” benefit it will also check the file’s integrity for us). `tee` is used here to save the output to a file. This will take a while as it needs to read through all the files…

$ unzip -t "*" | tee unzip-t.log


testing: N29E000.hgt OK
No errors detected in compressed data of

testing: N27E033.hgt OK
No errors detected in compressed data of

testing: N45E066.hgt OK
No errors detected in compressed data of

14297 archives were successfully processed.
14297 archives were successfully processed.

Yay, no errors!

In the output we see the path to the archive and we see the name of the file inside. With some sed and grep we can easily construct “deep” paths.

First we remove the status lines, the blank lines and the very last full status line with `grep`:

$ cat unzip-t.log | grep -v -e "No errors" -e '^$' -e 'successfully processed'

testing: N12E044.hgt OK
testing: N29W002.hgt OK
testing: N45E116.hgt OK

Then we concatenate every consecutive two lines into one line with `paste` (I LOVE THIS 1 TRICK!):

$ cat unzip-t.log | grep -v -e "No errors" -e '^$' -e 'successfully processed' | paste - -

Archive: testing: N12E044.hgt OK
Archive: testing: N29W002.hgt OK
Archive: testing: N45E116.hgt OK

Finally we strip things away with sed (I don’t care that you would do it differently, this is how I quickly did it with my flair of hammering) and direct the output into a new file called `zips`:

$ cat unzip-t.log | grep -v -e "No errors" -e '^$' -e 'successfully processed' | paste - - | sed -e 's#Archive:[ ]*##' -e 's#\t[ ]*testing: #/#' -e 's#[ ]*OK##' > zips

Yay, we have all the actual inside-zip paths now!

If you are curious, you can try gdalinfo with those now. You need to prepend /vsizip/ to the path to make it read inside zip files.

$ gdalinfo /vsizip/

Driver: SRTMHGT/SRTMHGT File Format
Files: /vsizip/
Size is 3601, 3601
Coordinate System is:
        SPHEROID["WGS 84",6378137,298.257223563,
Origin = (43.999861111111109,13.000138888888889)
Pixel Size = (0.000277777777778,-0.000277777777778)
Corner Coordinates:
Upper Left  (  43.9998611,  13.0001389) ( 43d59'59.50"E, 13d 0' 0.50"N)
Lower Left  (  43.9998611,  11.9998611) ( 43d59'59.50"E, 11d59'59.50"N)
Upper Right (  45.0001389,  13.0001389) ( 45d 0' 0.50"E, 13d 0' 0.50"N)
Lower Right (  45.0001389,  11.9998611) ( 45d 0' 0.50"E, 11d59'59.50"N)
Center      (  44.5000000,  12.5000000) ( 44d30' 0.00"E, 12d30' 0.00"N)
Band 1 Block=3601x1 Type=Int16, ColorInterp=Undefined
  NoData Value=-32768
  Unit Type: m

Hooray! GDAL reads the hgt file from inside its zip!

We need to prepend all the paths with `/vsizip/` so let’s do that:

$ sed 's#^#/vsizip/##' zips > vsizips


Unfortunately those 17 misnamed files from earlier need special treatment… This is what my notes say, not sure what it was supposed to do. If you are recreating this all, please just ask me and I will look at it again. For now, let’s just pretend that this leads to a file called `hgtfiles` in which all the paths are perfect and all the files are perfect.

grep -v 'SRTMGL1.hgt$' vsizips > vsizipswithoutmisnamedfiles
mkdir misnamedfiles
cd misnamedfiles/
nano ../listofmisnamedfiles # insert the paths to those 17 zips here #TODO
while read filename; do unzip "../${filename}"; done < ../listofmisnamedfiles
rename 's/SRTMGL1.//' *.hgt
cd ..
find misnamedfiles/ -type f > listofmisnamedfileshgt
cat listofmisnamedfileshgt vsizipswithoutmisnamedfiles > hgtfiles

As I said above though, go with a recent GDAL and this is all much easier. Even even included a check for the different filenames inside, how can you not like that guy!

Building a Virtual Raster Table

Virtual Raster Tables (VRT) are some kind of files that pretend to be rasters. They are awesome. Here we use a VRT that simply turns all the small rasters we have into one big ass raster.

Ok, ready to create a Virtual Raster Table!

$ time gdalbuildvrt -input_file_list hgtfiles srtmgl1.003.vrt

0...10...20...30...40...50...60...70...80...90...100 - done.

real 0m22.679s
user 0m19.250s
sys 0m3.105s


You could go ahead and use this for your work/leisure now. But remember, it is tens of gigabytes of data so if you do not use it at a 1:1 scale things will not be fun and might fry your cat. You want overviews/pyramids.

Turning the VRT into a GeoTIFF (Optional)

Let’s make a HUGEGEOTIFF because that’s cool! You don’t have to, instead you could build overviews for the .vrt file.

We want it quick to read and small so I used DEFLATE, TILED and the horizontal predictor. I ran this on a weak i7 with 2G of RAM and can’t remember what the worst bottleneck was. Probably CPU.

$ time gdal_translate -co NUM_THREADS=ALL_CPUS --config PREDICTOR 2 -co COMPRESS=DEFLATE -co TILED=YES -co BIGTIFF=YES srtmgl1.003.vrt srtmgl1.003.vrt.tif

Input file size is 1296001, 417601
0...10...20...30...40...50...60...70...80...90...100 - done.

real 231m57.961s
user 503m23.044s
sys 3m14.600s

If you are courageous you can load that file in your GIS now. But again, unless you watch it at a 1:1 scale or something close to that it WILL not be much fun and potentially expose weaknesses in your GIS and fill up your system’s memory and crash and you had no unsaved work open, didn’t you?

Building Overviews

Overviews aka pyramids are usually about 1/3 the size of the full image. If they are not, you probably used different compression settings. This was the step that I expected to be just boring to wait for, but it turned out the most problematic. I tried all available free tools but none worked properly with an input this big. With GDAL we found a workaround after a while.

gdaladdo has problems building multiple overview levels with a file this big… The trick is to built the overviews sequentially, not in one invocation. The best solution at the moment was building overviews for overviews for overviews and so on until you reach a comfortable size. Something like:

gdaladdo -ro srtmgl1.003.tif 2
gdaladdo -ro srtmgl1.003.tif.ovr 2
gdaladdo -ro srtmgl1.003.tif.ovr.ovr 2
gdaladdo -ro srtmgl1.003.tif.ovr.ovr.ovr 2
gdaladdo -ro srtmgl1.003.tif.ovr.ovr.ovr.ovr 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512

I used the following parameters:


Apparently gdaladdo automatically makes them tiled, which is good. I used to find out.

Creating overviews took just about 3 hours with this weird trick. So, in total the processing just takes half a day.


Enjoy! I impose no license/copyright/whatever on this derivative work.


Hillshading? Slope? You do it!

Found a better, faster way? You blog it!

We could add the overviews to the main image with `gdal_translate srtmgl1.003.tif srtmgl1.003.withovr.tif -co COPY_SRC_OVERVIEWS=YES [other options]` says Even.

e-foto (free GNU/GPL educational digital photogrammetric workstation) on Archlinux

I wrote this a year ago and meant to write more. Turns out I did not but it still works. You might need to figure out dependencies yourself. Here you go:

e-foto is a free GNU/GPL educational digital photogrammetric workstation in active development.

svn checkout e-foto-code
cd e-foto-code/c
tar xfv shapelib-1.3.0.tar.gz
mv shapelib-1.3.0 shapelib
cd ..
mkdir build
cd build
qmake-qt4 ../ 

Ready to run in


ffmpeg on raspbian / Raspberry Pi

Since is a bit messy, here is how you can compile ffmpeg with x264 on raspbian. Changes are building in your home directory, getting just a shallow git clone and building with all CPU cores. Also no unnecessary sudo…

Read the comments below!

# In a directory of your choosing (I used ~/ffmpeg):

# build and install x264
git clone --depth 1 git://
cd x264
./configure --host=arm-unknown-linux-gnueabi --enable-static --disable-opencl
make -j 4
sudo make install
# build and make ffmpeg
git clone --depth=1 git://
cd ffmpeg
./configure --arch=armel --target-os=linux --enable-gpl --enable-libx264 --enable-nonfree
make -j4
sudo make install

Read the comments below!

Hopefully someone, somewhere will provide a repository for this kind of stuff some day.

It takes just 25 minutes on a Raspberry Pi 3. Not hours or days like some old internet sources on old Raspis say.

In case you are wondering v4l2 should work with this.

Let’s Encrypt with Lighttpd

Save the page locally and use a clean browser to open the HTML file.
Create your keys and everything.
Cat domain.key and chained.pem into a new pemfile.
Grab the Let’s Encrypt Authority X1 (IdenTrust cross-signed) pemfile from
Put those two files in a safe place on your server.
Don’t forget to set proper permissions on the files. = "/path/to/lets-encrypt-x1-cross-signed.pem" # the Let's Encrypt certificate
ssl.pemfile = "/path/to/pemfile.pem" # your pemfile

Restart lighttpd.

Converting coordinates with cs2cs

In the spirit of Blog Little Things and after reading WEBKID’s You Might Not Need QGIS earlier, here you go:

So you have thousands or millions of coordinates in “the wrong” or “that stupid” coordinate reference system and want to convert them to “the one you need”? Easily done with proj‘s cs2cs tool. You feed it a list of coordinates and tell it how you want them transformed and put out.

Let’s say you have these crazy accurate super coordinates in EPSG:4326 (WGS84) in a file called MyStupidCoordinates.txt (for example from copying columns out of Excel).

9.92510775592794303 53.63833616755876932
9.89715616602172332 53.61639299685715798
9.91541274879985579 53.63589289755918799
9.91922922611725966 53.63415202989637010
9.92072211107566382 53.63179675033637750
9.89998015840083490 53.62284810375095390
9.90427723676020832 53.60740624866674153
9.95012889485460583 53.64563499608360075
9.89590860878436196 53.62979225409544171
9.92944379841924452 53.60061248161031955

and you want them in the much superior and wonderfully metric EPSG:25832 (ETRS89 / UTM zone 32N). You simply use +init=sourceCRS +to +init=targetCRS. if you have no idea what CRS your coordinates are in, enjoy 5 minutes with and you will either know or you might want to take a walk (don’t forget to try them flipped though).

cs2cs +init=epsg:4326 +to +init=epsg:25832 MyStupidCoordinates.txt

and it will print

561164.00 5943681.64 0.00
559346.79 5941216.81 0.00
560526.52 5943401.54 0.00
560781.36 5943211.12 0.00
560883.46 5942950.37 0.00
559524.51 5941937.29 0.00
559830.54 5940223.00 0.00
562807.40 5944515.43 0.00
559245.50 5942706.43 0.00
561505.49 5939488.65 0.00

You probably want more decimal places though, since your input coordinates were accurate down to the attodegree. For this, you can specify the output format with -f

cs2cs +init=epsg:4326 +to +init=epsg:25832 -f "%.17f" MyStupidCoordinates.txt

561164.00100000295788050 5943681.64279999211430550 0.00000000000000000
559346.79200000269338489 5941216.80899999570101500 0.00000000000000000
560526.52400000276975334 5943401.53899999428540468 0.00000000000000000
560781.36300000245682895 5943211.12199999392032623 0.00000000000000000
560883.46400000224821270 5942950.37499999348074198 0.00000000000000000
559524.51200000231619924 5941937.29399999510496855 0.00000000000000000
559830.54200000269338489 5940223.00299999490380287 0.00000000000000000
562807.39800000295508653 5944515.43399999290704727 0.00000000000000000
559245.50000000221189111 5942706.42899999395012856 0.00000000000000000
561505.48800000257324427 5939488.65499999187886715 0.00000000000000000


You could direct these transformed coordinates into a new file called MyCoolCoordinates.txt by adding a redirection of its output:

cs2cs +init=epsg:4326 +to +init=epsg:25832 MyStupidCoordinates.txt > MyCoolCoordinates.txt

You can find out more about cs2cs by reading its manpage:

man cs2cs

PS: You can handle that Z coordinate, right?

Partial 3D model of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through photogrammetry

The ESA asked people to use their imagery of the Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. They released an archive of photos under the CC BY-SA. I took them, threw them into a trial version of Agisoft Photoscan and generated a textured mesh in it. I then exported it as .obj-model, loaded it in Blender and exported it to a WebGL scene with blend4web. In other words, I just threw some programs at it.


You can see the result in your browser at (~7 Megabytes). Be aware that while I used a lower quality version for this web version, the higher quality versions I tried were not actually that much “better”. The quality is limited by the resolution of the imagery and of course the fact that we do not have full coverage of a well-lit comet. Still totally fascinating and lots of fun to try.

You can download a higher quality .obj at (~12 Megabytes), you can import that straight into Blender.

Now could someone turn the VisualSFM suite into something that is fun to use on Linux so I can try without Photoscan? ;)

PS: I should add that I have not used Photoscan without ground control points for a completely foreign object before. Someone with more experience should be able to get a better result out of it. If you do and you read this, please share your wisdom!

“Commandline File Hosts”

These are the “terminal to URL” file hosts I know. Please tell me about others. The speed tests are not scientific at all, my servers might be uncapable of better speeds because of saturation or bad routing.

curl --upload-file "01_Name_Game_(Intro).mp3"

Maximum Filesize: 5 Gigabytes
Expiration after: 2 weeks
Serves error 500 for non-existing files. Does not serve direct downloads anymore. Bleh.
Download URLs are modeled after your original filename (“special” characters are replaced): upload: ~30-110 Megabit/s download: ~240 Megabit/s

curl -F "file=@01_Name_Game_(Intro).mp3"

Maximum Filesize: 20 Gigabytes
Expiration after: 4 hours
Requires you to visit their website to get a key (URL) assigned.
Download URLs are random and but it serves original filename with content-disposition: upload: ~60-75 Megabit/s download: 100 Megabit/s

curl --upload-file 01_Name_Game_\(Intro\).mp3

Maximum Filesize: 50 Megabytes
Expiration after: 6 months
They might increase filesize and expiration if there is enough interest, as of now you can not “sign-up” for those.
Download URLs are unreadable, filenames are lost: upload: ~8 Megabit/s (until it errored :) )
Requires sign-up.

Shutting down the operating system by playing a “kill song” in MPD

I use a 20€ Dockstar with Archlinux ARM on it as MPD music server. Since I like to turn off electronic devices when they are not needed and pulling the plug is not something you should do to running computers, I was looking for a solution to somehow shut it down from any mpd client. So I added a specific song as “shutdown file”. Once that song is played, the system will cleanly shut down and power off.

Here is the systemd .service file I came up with:

# cat /etc/systemd/system/mpdtosystemshutdown.service
Description=MPD to system shutdown

ExecStart=/bin/sh -c "sleep 10 && /usr/bin/inotifywait -e open /path/to/path/music/shutdown.mp3 && mpc clear && shutdown -h now"


You need: inotify-tools and mpc (in addition to mpd)

  1. The service sleeps for 10 seconds in the beginning because I keep the music on an external USB harddisk which gets mounted after the multi-user target is reached. This is an ugly workaround but should be good enough. A better solution would be using a udev rule or systemd mount unit to only start the service when the harddisk is mounted.
  2. Then inotifywait will monitor shutdown.mp3 for being opened by mpd (or anything else). Once this happens inotifywait will quit successfully.
  3. mpc will clear the mpd playlist as you do not want shutdown.mp3 to be played again right after booting, do you? I surely did not.
  4. Finally the system is being shut down and powered off.

You probably have to add shutdown.mp3 to your mpd database before starting this service or the database update might trigger it. Updating the database afterwards is save and does not trigger the shutdown.

Don’t blame me if this ends up with an infinite reboot loop.